Transfer pricing – royalties collected between related parties such as a parent company and a controlled foreign capital firm – are an area of high risk of tax compliance for multinational companies and have a significant impact on tax planning and financial reporting. Amazon, AOL, Adobe, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft and other multinationals have made headlines because they are transfer pricing disputes over possible revenue adjustments ranging from tens of millions to more than $1 billion. However, the effects of transfer pricing could also apply, for example, to a small production company in Canton, Ohio, that wants to expand abroad. Because transfer pricing is a niche area for practitioners, this article provides a general overview of the key pricing themes that practitioners face from a financial and fiscal perspective. The content of intercompany agreements depends largely on the nature of the controlled transaction and the jurisdictions in which the controlled transactions take place. Complex controlled transactions, such as the licensing of intellectual property. B require detailed contracts. Contracts for simple controlled transactions, such as the provision of administrative services, are. B can be maintained easily. In practice, companies often neglect contractual obligations between companies. And even when intercompany agreements are concluded, they are often poorly drafted, obsolete and do not reflect the economic reality of controlled transactions. The lack of intercompany (quality) agreements can be a risk for many reasons. These are the three main ones: in the absence of APA, companies must assess the strength of their position pending the breadth of documentation and economic analysis that support the position; The extent to which the actual transfer pricing policy is consistent with the documentation and economic analysis that support the position; any history of the IRS`s handling of the tax situation as well as the foreign tax administration; and the extent to which a party recognizes a loss in the transaction (usually a red flag that can increase the likelihood of a transfer pricing audit).
Under the rules of several countries, taxpayers must demonstrate that the prices charged are within the prices allowed by the transfer pricing rules. If such documentation is not established in time, it may be imposed as above. To avoid these penalties, documentation may be required before filing a tax return.  A tax payer`s documents are not required to refer to the tax authorities in a jurisdiction that allows for price adjustment. Some systems allow the tax authorities to ignore information that is not provided on time by taxpayers, including advance documents. India requires not only that the documents be available before a return is filed, but also that the documents be certified by the accountant who is preparing a business return. More than sixty governments have adopted transfer pricing rules which, in almost all cases (with notable exceptions from Brazil and Kazakhstan), are based on the principle of arm length.  The rules of almost all countries allow nearby parties to set prices in one way or another, but allow tax authorities to adjust those prices (for the purposes of calculating tax debt) when the prices charged are outside the length of an arm.